Pulp Mills and the Environment: an Annotated Bibliography for Nothern Alberta

Water Pollution

A.A. Aquatic Research Limited. Procedures and Methods for Evaluating Water Quality Changes in Receiving Streams: Technical Manual. [Edmonton]: Alberta Environment, 1986. Procedures for testing water samples.

Bonsor, Norman, Neil McCubbin and John B. Sprague. Kraft Mill Effluents in Ontario. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1988. Prepared for the Technical Advisory Committee, Pulp and Paper Sector of MISA (Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement) and Ontario Ministry of the Environment by the Expert Committee on Kraft Mill Toxicity. The best overview on the kinds and sources of wastes produced by kraft types of pulp mills.

Cherwinsky, Christina and Don Murray. Preliminary Investigation of Trace Contaminants in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1986. MICROLOG 87-01079, 2 fiche. Gives long lists of chemicals and groups of chemicals found in pulp mill effluents. Such chemicals cause, or are suspected of causing: toxicity to aquatic organisms, mutations, cancers, fish tainting, or taste and odour problems for drinking water.

Colodey, A.G. Environmental Impact of Bleached Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents in Sweden, Finland, and Norway: Implications to the Canadian Environment. Ottawa: Unpublished report IP-99 of Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Pacific and Yukon Region, 1989. This report looks into what pollution impacts (especially on fish) may occur in Canada. There is a large annotated bibliography on the effects of pulp and paper mill effluents; also a short summary of human health effects of such mills.

Daishowa Canada Co. Ltd. Peace River Kraft Pulp Mill: Water Quality and Fisheries Impact Analysis and Dioxin Evaluation. Calgary: Monenco Consultants Limited, 1987. This is a draft report. Dioxin Committee (a Joint Committee of the Air Pollution Control Division and Solid Waste Processing Division). Bibliography on Dioxins. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1987.

Eisler, Ronald. Dioxin Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1986. Biological Report 85 (1.8). Contaminant Hazard Review number 8. A concise introduction to the problems of dioxins in wildlife. Recommends a maximum of 0.01 ppt (parts per trillion) in water to protect aquatic life or 10-12 ppt in food items of wildlife.

Griffiths, W.H. and B.D. Walton. The Effects of Sedimentation on the Aquatic Biota. Edmonton: Alberta Environment and Environment Canada, 1978. Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program AF 4.9.1. Reviews detrimental effects of increased suspended and settled sediments on fish, benthic invertebrates, and primary producers. Upper tolerance for fish is about 80-100 mg/L and as low as 10-15 mg/L for bottom invertebrates. Sediments can arise from vegetation removal, road construction, and industrial activities.

Haufe, W.O. and G.C.R. Croome, editor. Control of Black Flies in the Athabasca River. Technical report. An Interdisciplinary Study for the Chemical Control of Simulium arcticum Malloch in Relation to the Bionomics of Biting Flies in the Protection of Human, Animal, and Industrial Resources and its Impact on the Aquatic Environment. Edmonton: Alberta Environment, Pollution Control Division, 1980. Twenty-one papers related to application of methoxychlor to the Athabasca River. As stated above the behaviour of pesticides is similar to many toxic wastes.

Haufe, W.O. Control of Black Flies in the Athabasca River. Evaluation and Recommendations for Chemical Control of Simulium arcticum Malloch. Edmonton: Alberta Environment, Pollution Control Division, 1980. Addition of pesticides to the Athabasca River has many similarities to the addition of toxic effluents. This summary paper has a number of useful references.

Hogge, H.L. Disposal of Waste Waters from Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills to the Athabasca River. Edmonton: Alberta Department of Public Health, Division of Sanitary Engineering, April 1965. A historical document.

Industrial Programs Branch, Environmental Protection Programs Directorate, Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada. Status Report on Abatement on Water Pollution from the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry (1982). 1984. Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1984. Report EPS 1/PF/1. A short report on the industry's responses to federal government standards up to 1982. It includes: total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, toxicity, sulphite pulping, compliance technology, research and development, effluents to municipal systems.

McLeay, D. and Associates Ltd. Aquatic Toxicity of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent: A Review. Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1987. Prepared for Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Report EPS 4/PF/1. MICROLOG 87-05110, 3 fiche. Excellent overview of chemicals, laboratory procedures, ecological effects, bioaccumulation, and bioassays.

Moore, James W. and S. Ramamoorthy. Heavy Metals in Natural Waters. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984. Production, transformations and toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium,copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc.

Moore, James W. and S. Ramamoorthy. Organic Chemicals in Natural Waters: Applied Monitoring and Impact Assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984. Includes production, behaviour and toxicity of: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons - monocyclics and polycyclics, chlorinated pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD).

National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement. Chlorinated Organics in Bleach Plant Effluents of Pulp and Paper Mills. New York: The Council, 1980. Also available as the Council's Technical Bulletin 332.

Sachinath, Mitra. Mercury in the Ecosystem. Lancaster, PA.: Technomic, 1986. Mercury seems to naturally occur in many lakes and rivers of Alberta. Some pulp mills used mercury to produce chlorine for bleaching. Though the mercury was supposed to be in a closed system, some escaped. Mercury compounds were formerly used in pulp mills as slimicides. This book explains how mercury moves around ecosystems.

Shaw, R.D. and R. Noton. A Preliminary Assessment of the Impact of Existing Pulp Mills on the Peace River. Edmonton: Alberta Environment, Environmental Protection Service, Environmental Assessment Division, Environmental Quality Monitoring Branch, 1989. A 15 page summary.

Sprague, J.B. and A.G. Colodey. Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms of Organochlorine Substances in Kraft Mill Effluents. Ottawa: Unpublished report IP-100 of Renewable Resources, Extraction and Processing Division, Industrial Programs Branch, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, 1989. This report gives information on lethal and sublethal effects of kraft effluents on various aquatic organisms as well as regulations for Europe and North America.

Trudel, L. Dioxins and Furans in Bottom Sediments Near the 47 Canadian Pulp and Paper Mills Using Chlorine Bleaching. Ottawa: Water Quality Branch, Inland Waters Directorate, Environment Canada, 1991. These compounds were found at 95% of the sites. The high amounts found at some sites spurred the development of more stringent control regulations.

Van Strum, Carol and Paul Merrell. No Margin of Safety: A Preliminary Report on Dioxin Pollution and the Need for Emergency Action in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Greenpeace, 1987. A review of the status of dioxins produced by the kraft pulping process.

Science Outreach Athabasca - September 27, 2012

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